美国如何一步步成为超级大国的

  古往今来,从来没有哪个国家像美国这样强大

  美国究竟依靠了哪些力量和因素崛起为超级大国?

  一、崛起历程

  从它在世界上所占的地位看,美国的发展历程大致可分为三个阶段。

  1、从独立建国到发展为头号资本主义国家(1776—1945年)为第一阶段。

  这一阶段,北美1 3个英属殖民地的人民通过独立战争和1812——1814年第二次独立战争,彻底摆脱了英 国殖民统治,为美国资本主义的发展开辟了道路;又经过南北战争(1861—1865年),废 除了奴隶制度,大大推进了在自由劳动制度下美国工业化的进程。虽然1929—1933年的 全球经济危机使美国受到严重打击,但两次世界大战都极大地刺激了美国经济,从而使第二次世界大战结束时,美国发展成为世界头号资本主义国家。

  2、从二战后初期到1991年苏联解体前为第二阶段。

  当时的美国是与苏联并列的两个超级大国之一。

  3、 从1991年底苏联解体至今是第三阶段。

  此时的美国是世界上唯一的超级大国。20世纪9 0年代美国率先走上发展信息经济的道路,从而使劳动生产率和经济发展速度再次超过所有发达资本主义国家。苏联的解体和美国经济实力的膨胀,使美国以唯一“超级大国 ”身份行事,摆出世界霸主的架势。

  二、美国崛起的原因

  1、良好的自然条件和地理环境

  良好的自然条件:可耕地占国土面积90%!与加拿大共有的五大湖泊所蓄淡水 约占世界淡水总量一半,并具有丰富的矿产资源。

  良好的地理位置:北与加 拿大、南与墨西哥两个弱国相邻,东西有大西洋、太平洋两洋相隔,使其在两次大战中 不仅本土未受损伤,反而可以利用战争的机会聚敛财富。世界上几乎没有任何一个其它 大国享有如此的“天赋权利”。

  2、有利于创新、发展的民族精神

  美国历来被称为多民族的国家,是一个没有传统的(宗教传统除外) 、从民主共和国开始的国家,是一个比任何别的民族都要精力充沛的民族。

  清教对美利坚民族精神的形成起了独特的作用。清教徒们想方设法证明,努力工作就能取悦于上帝,发奋经商就会得到升 华,因为“上帝不会让一个人具有五分的才干只得到二分报酬”。教友们由此而“极其勤劳,为聚敛财富而不辞劳苦与艰辛”。这种职业教义使宗教观和资产阶级经济观有机地结合在一起。,美国之所以能够产生出充满活力、发展迅速的市场经济,是和美国新教徒的伦理道德、职业精神分不开的。使得美利坚 民族养成了自强不息、艰苦奋斗的精神和科学的求实态度,以及藐视封建传统、趋向变 动的革新精神和强烈的自治愿望。

  3、有一部维护资产阶级长治久安的相对稳定的宪法

  美国宪法制定的过程及其权威性和相对稳定性特点,对美国的发展起了重要作 用。

  200多年来除增加了“权利法案” 即前十条修正案外,总共仅26条修正案,且至今仍然适用,在世界宪法史上是绝无仅有的。其中重要原因之一是它只列基本原则,宪法自身随时代的演变而演变。而三权分立 与制衡被认为是美国建国先辈们一项得意之作。其最大成就,在于他们成功地将一个软弱无力、宗派林立的各州联盟转变成一个统一国家 。这个成就本身改变了美国的世界地位”。

  4、两次革命与多次改革为经济和综合国力发展创造了有利条件

  1775年开始的美国独立战争推翻了英国殖民统治,使美国生产力获得第一次大解放;1861—1865年内战废除了奴隶制,使生产力获得第二次大解放,从而使工业革命于19世 纪80年代完成。无论是18世纪的独立战争或是19世纪60年代的内战,这两次革命的主力都是 广大的人民群众。

  值得注意的是,美国从建国伊始还经历了各种社会运动和改革,大到关系国计民生的 经济变革和政府改革,小到禁酒运动和涉及民风民俗,几乎无所不包。其中比较突出的 有19世纪末的黑幕揭发者运动,20世纪初影响深远的进步运动,30年代初的罗斯福“新 政”和二次大战后60年代兴起的空前激烈的争取民权、反对种族歧视、争取妇女平等权 利的运动和新左派运动等。这些运动迫使美国当局在一定程度上进行相应的改革。从这 个意义上讲,社会运动和改革已构成美国重要推动力,这也反映了美国社会的自我调节能力,。

  5、一贯重视经济、教育、科技和人才的网罗

  作为一个纯粹的资本主义国家,出于对资本增殖和扩展的强烈愿望,美国很懂得加强 经济这个根本。

  为了解决工业化时期资金不足的问题,曾大量引进外资,并特别注意树立奖励发明和 技术创新意识。早在1790年联邦政府即正式成立专利局,管理发明创造。

  美国新教有重视教育的传统。特别是高等教育在总体上一直处于世界领先地位。而且 ,美国当局不断检讨教育中的问题,时时存在一种危机感。敢于正视存在的问题,也反映了对教育的重视。

  美国一直鼓励科学和发明,其办法是促进思想自由交流,鼓励“实用知识”的发展和 网罗来自世界各地的有创造力的人才。20世纪90年代美国又 率先进入知识经济时代,依靠信息网络优势,在劳动生产率和经济发展速度上再次超过 其他发达资本主义国家。作为世界头号科技强国,美国的科技投入也是无人可及的。

  美国成为科技强国与其广泛招揽科研人才有密切关系。作为一个主要由外来移民组成 的国家,美国不仅吸收了世界上许多国家文化、科技和其它工艺,而且获得了许多优秀 的科学家和技术人才。

  6、利用两次世界大战登上世界霸主地位

  20世纪上半叶,两次世界大战造成了空前浩劫,世界上各主要大国除美国外几乎无一 例外地遭到严重打击或削弱。美国由于有两洋之隔,远离战争中心而免遭破坏,反而利 用大战发了横财。

  经过第一次世界大战,美国由债务国一跃而为债权国,成为全世界金融中心和财政剥 削中心。

  二战后,美国不仅摆脱了30年代严重的经济危机与萧条,而且大大发展了生产 力,促进了国家垄断资本主义的发展。战后初期,美国占资本主义世界工业产量的53.4 %(1948年),出口贸易的32.4%(1947年),黄金储备的74.5%(1948年)。美国靠战争的输 血而空前强大起来。当时,美国垄断资产阶级宣称,20世纪是“美国世纪”。杜鲁门总 统在1945年12月的国情咨文中说,“胜利已使美国人民有经常而迫切的必要来领导世界 了”。

  7、利用美元在二战后资本主义世界货币领域的霸权地位而获利

  美国霸权的基础,是美元在国际货币体系中的作用 和它的核威慑力量扩大到了各个盟国。

  《布雷顿森林协定》确立了美元在战后资本主义世界货币领域的霸权地位,为美 国的经济扩张创造了极为有利的条件。由于美国在国际贸易中占有绝对优势,1947年10 月于日内瓦签订的《关税和贸易总协定》(“世界贸易组织”的前身),同样首先适应了 美国的需要。1999年美国以其占世界4.5%的人口利用了世界85%的流动资本和72%的世界 储备。难怪在两极格局解体后,美国一再强调“这个由美国起领导作用的”、上世纪40 年代形成的世界秩序一直存在,而美国“仍然是世界秩序的核心”。

  8、利用“冷战”推行联合与壮大资本主义力量的策略

  二战后美苏两国几达半个世纪的“冷战”给了美国国力发展以多方面的刺激。由于“ 冷战”这种疑似临战态势的不断持续,刺激了国防工业,从而“造就了美国尖端技术” 。而更重要的是给了美国以拉拢资本主义同盟者的天赐良机。

  1947年6月就提出了援助西欧的马歇尔计划。此计划以“复兴欧洲”为名,行控制西欧之实。对美国来说,马歇尔计划达到了 一箭几雕的目的。既稳定了西欧经济,防止社会动乱与革命的爆发,又使受援国沦为美 国的附庸和势力范围,纳入美国全球称霸的战略轨道。对于美国经济而言,它有助于美国商品的输出。这样,美国就利用“ 冷战”的阴影,把“遏制”共产主义的计谋与制造商、出口商的热情融为一体了。

  从以上的论述中我们看到,200多年来促使美国迅速崛起的因素是多方面的,是这些因素综合作用的结果。

How the United States has become a superpower

Throughout the past, no country has ever been so powerful as the United States

What power and factors do the United States rely on to rise for the superpower?

First, the rise of the process

From its position in the world, the development of the United States can be divided into three stages.

1, from independent founding to the development of the number one capitalist countries (1776-1945) for the first stage.

At this stage, the people of the 13 British colonies in North America opened the way for the development of American capitalism through the War of Independence and the Second War of Independence of 1812 - 1814, completely freeing the British colonial rule, and through the Civil War 1861-1865), abolished the slavery system, greatly promoted the process of industrialization in the United States under the free labor system. Although the global economic crisis of 1929-1933 had dealt a serious blow to the United States, the two world wars had greatly stimulated the American economy, so that at the end of the Second World War, the United States developed into the world’s top capitalist state.

2, from the early post-World War II to 1991 before the disintegration of the Soviet Union for the second stage.

At that time the United States was one of the two superpowers tied to the Soviet Union.

3, from the end of 1991 the Soviet Union has been the third stage.

At this time the United States is the world’s only superpower. In the 1990s, the United States took the lead in embarking on the path of developing the information economy, thus making labor productivity and economic development faster than all developed capitalist countries. The disintegration of the Soviet Union and the expansion of US economic power, so that the United States to act as the only “superpower” identity, put the world’s overlord posture.

Second, the reasons for the rise of the United States

1, good natural conditions and geographical environment

Good natural conditions: arable land accounted for 90% of land area! The five major lakes shared with Canada account for about half of the world’s fresh water and are rich in mineral resources.

Good location: North and Canada, South and Mexico two weak countries adjacent to things, the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean separated, so that in the two wars not only local damage, but can use the opportunity to gather the wealth of war. Almost no other big country in the world enjoys such “natural rights”.

2, is conducive to innovation, the development of national spirit

The United States, which has traditionally been called a multi-ethnic country, is a country that is not traditional (except religious traditions) and which begins with a democratic republic, a nation that is energetic than any other nation.

Puritan played a unique role in the formation of the American national spirit. The Puritans tried to prove that hard work would be able to please God, and that the counselor would be sublimated because “God would not let a man have five points to earn only two points.” The faithful are “extremely industrious and hardworking and struggling to gather wealth.” This professional doctrine makes the religious and bourgeois economic views organically combined. , The United States has been able to produce a vibrant, rapid development of the market economy, and the American Protestant ethics, professional spirit inseparable. So that the American people to develop self-improvement, the spirit of hard work and scientific truth-seeking attitude, as well as contempt for feudal traditions, tend to change the spirit of innovation and strong desire for autonomy.

3, there is a maintenance of the bourgeoisie long-term stability of the relatively stable constitution

The development of the US Constitution and its authoritative and relative stability characteristics, the development of the United States played an important role.

Over the past two years, in addition to the addition of the Bill of Rights Act, the first ten amendments, a total of only 26 amendments, and still apply, in the history of the world’s history is unique. One of the important reasons is that it only lists the basic principles, the evolution of the Constitution itself with the evolution of the times. And the separation of powers and checks and balances are considered a founding father of the United States. Its greatest achievement is that they succeed in transforming a weak, sectarian state coalition into a unified state. This achievement itself changed the status of the United States. “

  1. The two revolutions and many reforms have created favorable conditions for economic and comprehensive national strength development

The American Civil War, which began in 1775, overthrew the British colonial rule and gave American productive power the first major liberation; the 1861-1865 civil society abolished slavery and made the second great liberation of productive forces, bringing the industrial revolution to the 19th century The age is complete. Whether it was the 18th century War of Independence or the civil war of the 1960s, the main forces of the two revolutions were the broad masses of the people.

It is noteworthy that the United States from the beginning of the founding of the country has also experienced a variety of social movements and reform, to the people’s livelihood and economic reform and government reform, small to alcohol and folk customs, almost all-encompassing. Which is more prominent in the late 19th century shady actress movement, the early 20th century, far-reaching progressive movement, the early 1930s Roosevelt “New Deal” and the Second World War 60 years after the rise of unprecedented fierce civil rights, against racial discrimination, Women’s equal rights movement and the New Left movement. These movements forced the US authorities to a certain extent, the corresponding reform. In this sense, social movements and reforms have become an important impetus to the United States, which also reflects the self-regulation of American society.

5, has always attached importance to the economy, education, science and technology and talent snare

As a purely capitalist country, thanks to the strong desire for capital proliferation and expansion, the United States knows how to strengthen the economy.

In order to solve the problem of insufficient funds in the industrial period, a large number of foreign investment, and pay special attention to establish the invention of incentives and technological innovation. As early as 1790 the federal government formally established the patent office, management of inventions.

American Protestantism attaches great importance to the tradition of education. In particular, higher education has been a world leader in general. Moreover, the US authorities continue to review the problems in education, there is always a sense of crisis. Dare to face up to the problems, but also reflects the importance of education.

The United States has always encouraged science and invention by promoting freedom of thought, encouraging the development of “practical knowledge” and bringing creative talent from all over the world. In the 1990s, the United States took the lead in entering the era of knowledge economy, relying on the advantages of information network, in labor productivity and economic development speed again over other developed capitalist countries. As the world’s number one technology power, the United States is also unparalleled investment in science and technology.

The United States has become a strong power of science and technology and its extensive recruitment of scientific research personnel are closely related. As a country mainly composed of immigrants, the United States not only absorbed many countries in the world of culture, technology and other technology, and access to many outstanding scientists and technical personnel.

6, the use of two world wars boarded the world hegemony

The first half of the 20th century, the two world wars caused an unprecedented catastrophe, the world’s major powers in addition to the United States almost without exception, was severely hit or weakened. The United States because of the two seas, away from the war center and from the destruction, but the use of war made a windfall.

After the First World War, the United States by the debtor countries leap to creditors, as the world’s financial center and financial exploitation center.

After World War II, the United States not only out of the 30’s serious economic crisis and depression, but also greatly developed the productive forces, and promote the development of national monopoly capitalism. In the early years after the war, the United States accounted for 53.4% ​​of the industrial output of the capitalist world (1948), 32.4% of the export trade (1947) and 74.5% of the gold reserves (1948). The United States by the war of blood transfusion and unprecedented strength. At that time, the US monopoly bourgeoisie declared that the twentieth century was “American century”. In his December 1945, President Truman said, “victory has made the American people have the urgent need to lead the world.”

7, the use of the dollar in the post-World War II capitalist world currency hegemony and profit

The basis of American hegemony is the role of the dollar in the international monetary system and its nuclear deterrent power has been extended to allies.

The Bretton Woods Agreement establishes the hegemonic position of the dollar in the postwar capitalist world currency, creating extremely favorable conditions for US economic expansion. As the United States has an absolute advantage in international trade, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (the predecessor of the World Trade Organization), signed in Geneva in October 1947, first adapted to the needs of the United States. In 1999, the United States used 85% of the world’s working capital and 72% of the world’s reserves for 4.5% of the world’s population. It is no wonder that after the disintegration of the bipolar pattern, the United States has repeatedly stressed that “this is the leading role of the United States,” the formation of the last century, 40 years of the world order has always existed, and the United States “is still the core of the world order.”

8, the use of “cold war” to implement the joint and strengthen the capitalist forces strategy

After the Second World War, the United States and the Soviet Union for half a century “cold war” to the United States to the development of a multitude of stimulus. As the “cold war” this suspected war situation continues to continue to stimulate the defense industry, thus “creating the US cutting-edge technology.” And more importantly, to the United States to draw the capitalist allies of the heaven-sent opportunity.

In June 1947, the Marshall Plan for Western Europe was proposed. This plan to “revive Europe” in the name of the line control of Western Europe. For the United States, Marshall plans to achieve the purpose of a few arrows. Both to stabilize the Western European economy, to prevent social unrest and the outbreak of the revolution, but also to the recipient countries into the United States of the vassal and sphere of influence, into the United States to dominate the global strategic track. For the US economy, it contributes to the export of US goods. In this way, the United States on the use of “cold war” shadow, the “containment” communist strategy and manufacturers, exporters of the enthusiasm of the integration.

From the above discussion we have seen that the factors that have contributed to the rapid rise of the United States in the past 200 years are multidimensional and the result of the combined effect of these factors.